Mary Klages Literary Theory–Modern/Postmodern Theory & Ideologies

Literary theories have existed as long as literature has.’ Literary Theory, with the capital letters, points to sets of ideas that have greatly influenced the way we have thought about, taught, and produced scholarship on literature within colleges and universities in the past thirty to forty years. “Literary Theory’ is a big unbrealla term that covers a variety of approaches to texts (‘literary’ or not); if these approaches have anything in common, it is that all of them examine factors that shape how a text is written and how we are able to read it. ‘Literary Theory’ comes from all kinds of disciplines, including linguistics, psychology,  anthropology, philosophy, history, economics, gender studies, and political science; much of what falls under the heading ‘Literary Theory,’ as you’ll see, has little to do directly with what we think of as literature. (p. 4-5).


A special note for those of you who have been directed to this page fromThe Natural Law Primer. After pondering/studying the ideas presented in some of these theories, I would like to direct your attention to the study group’s philosophy page and a hotlink off of that page titled ==> Conflicting Paradigms: Traditional Logic vs. Contemporary Logic. The page contains links to excerpts taken from Dr. R.C. Sproul’s Classical Christian Apologetics which delve into the three logical principles of classical thought: The Law of Non-Contradiction, The Law of Causality, and The Basic Reliability of Sense Perception. You will also find an essay accessible from another link on that page titledThe Two Logics authored by Dr. Peter Kreeft. You may note Dr. Kreeft is another Christian thinker who has a page devoted to him, and whose work is displayed on the site.


We contend that these additional resources, when seriously considered, have the philosophical/theoretical resources and potential–if understood correctly–to successfully address, and defeat, all of the issues that these differing systems, and “non-systems,” of thought attempt to bring forward and, successfully, argue. For a more robust statement of our position-with regard to the sorts of modern & post-modern theories listed below; please reference the statement in the section just beneath the listing of theories near the bottom of this page.


Click on any of the hot linked titles below and you will be taken to what is essentially a synopsis of the differing theories and viewpoints that have been generated and given the label of literary criticism in recent history.


However, to find a more solid terrain for this kind of study you will want to look at our Literary Criticism page which will point you to some of the works Lewis produced in his activity as a literary theorist and critic. You can find out more about his work in this genera; in addition and for those of you who would like to consider a more traditional approach to the field of hermeneutics and textual analysis, please visit our How To Read a Book/How to Read the Bible for All It’s Worth page.

To understand the importance Lewis attributed to the art of reading good books you may want to go to our C.S. Lewis On The Reading of Old Books page.


I have provided a hot link titled Fear and Trembling listed among the modern and post-modern studies below. The author of this work, which was the Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard who was considered by almost everyone to be a kind of great-grandfather of Existentialist thought though he was a Christian theist; however, what further developed were philosophes in the modes of existentialist thought as they  proliferated the academic/intellectual landscape, which were in turn taken on (following Fredrik Nietzsche’s atheistic [God is Dead] turn) by those who were later to develop the kinds and assortment of theories you see listed below.

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                          Fear and Trembling


Humanism & Literary Theory   


                                   Ferdinand de Saussure


Claude Levi-Strauss “The Structural Study of Myth” and Other Structuralist Ideas




           Derrida and Deconstruction: “Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the   Human Sciences”                        

       Psychoanalysis and Sigmund Freud


Jean Baudrillard




→  How to Make a Critical Theory . . .

  . . . Out of Anything


         Ø  The Cult Dynamics of Wokeness

                                    New Discourses





                                                          Jacques Lacan


Roland Barthes and The Death of the Author  





                Theorizing Gender


Gayle Rubin-Thinking-Sex


                              Click   Queer Theory





Feminist Theory/”The Laugh of the Medusa”–Helene Cixou

                                      Judith Bulter


     Luce Irigaray


                                                Marxism and Ideology     


               → The Marxist Foundation



Louis Althusser’s “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses”


                 The Blackness of Blackness


Postcolonialism & Orientalism


The Location of Culture


                              Foucault: Post structuralism   


Colonialism & English


                                     Race and Postcolonialism  


Postcolonialism & Orientalism






Mark Steyn explores what Daffy Duck used to call “pronoun trouble”. His guest is Jordan Peterson, a clinical psychologist at the University of Toronto whose entire career has been imperiled by his opposition to the new “non-binary” gender pronouns – such as “zhe”. Transgender activists and other politically correct enforcers have determined to destroy him. In this full-length interview, Steyn and Professor Peterson discuss the Orwellian perversion of language and the totalitarian impulses of social engineering. And Mark asks the big question: Is the jig up for western civilization?

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 A Must See Follow Through Addendum to The Mark Steyn Jordan Peterson Interview Above → Political  Correctness and  Postmodernism




As university administrators assist students in protesting the event, Matt Walsh is LIVE at the University of Wisconsin-Superior to tackle the Left’s war on reality, examine why they want to redefine America’s core institutions, and share how you can stop their radicalism before it’s too late.




See Also:The Coddling of the American Mind



Through brand names like “comprehensive sex education” and one of its parent programs, “Social-Emotional Learning (SEL),” our government schools have been turned into Groomer Schools, and parents are beginning to notice. What many will not understand, however, is that this isn’t just a fluke of our weird and increasingly degenerate times. It is, in fact, a long-purposed Marxist project reaching back into the early 20th century. In this episode of the New Discourses Podcast, join James Lindsay as he explains the long history of the sexual grooming that has come into our schools through Critical Gender Theory and Queer Theory as they have crept into educational programs. If you want an explanation for how sexually explicit materials, gend byer ideology, pornography, and strippers have made their way into our government schools, including for young children, this is a must-hear.



          →  A SUGGESTION

For those of you who would like to come to a more full understanding of the intellectual landscape we find ourselves in as well as gaining access to the remaining 3 podcasts in the 4 part Groomer School series visit our → Andrew Breitbart page. It also contains a PDF download titled Breakthrough, a chapter from his book Righteous Indignation in which he describes his experiences when confronted with the Critical Theory of The Frankfurt School as an undergraduate at Tulane University.



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                          The Ongoing Fiasco

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Medical Lysenkosim and Woke Medical Practice



In order to come to a better understanding of just where these ideas came from you may want to watch a more exhaustive analysis of just how we have come to live on the end point of a 250 year long spear, the very tip of which was very long in the making.

→ See The Democrat’s Hydra below ←




       “Come now, and let us reason together,” Says the LORD ISAIAH 1:18


To follow the lead of one of our site philosophers, Edward Feser, we would suggest that the theories listed above have the same kind of theoretical shortcomings as do all thinkers, and theorists, have whose orientation is found in a godless way of thinking about the natural world.  I’ve therefore adapted a statement from his book, ==> The Last Superstitionas he addresses the new atheists, with the thought of the thinkers and theories listed above.


The Last Supersition“I propose interpreting naturalism and secularism as religious phenomena. Or rather, if secularism is not precisely a religion, it is what we might call a counter-religion. It has its countersaints (Darwin, Clarence Darrow, Carl Sagan); its “Old Testament” counter-prophets, stern and forbidding, brimming with apocalyptic doom or at least pessimism (Marx, Nietzsche, Freud); and its kinder and gentler “New Testament” counter-apostles, hopeful for a realization of the Kingdom of Godlessness on earth via “progressive” educational policy and other schemes of social uplift (Dennett,  Dawkins, Harris, and Hitchens – and into the bargain, each member of this foursome even has his own Gospel). It affords a sense of identity and meaning to those beholden to it, a metaphysics to interpret the world by and a value system to live by, even if all of this is little more than a negation of the sort of metaphysics and morality associated with religion: that is to say, a counter-metaphysics, a counter-morality. And yet it is also a belief system that is, as I have said, deeply irrational and immoral, indeed the very negation of reason and morality. Thus do I call it the last superstition: not merely “last” in the sense of being the superstition that remains when all the others have purportedly been abolished by it, but also “last” in the sense of being the ultimate superstition, “the mother of all superstitions.”

Dr. Edward Feser, The Last Superstition, Location 505/520 in the Digital Version.

For those who have questions and doubt whether Dr. Feser’s line of reason on this issue holds water, we would invite you to ponder the thought of Ray Comfort’s ==> The Atheist Delusion.


==> An Amazon Link <==







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